Aristotle, the greatest philosopher ever, was born in Stagirus, in the year 384 BCE on the Chalcidic peninsula of northern Greece and died in 322 BC. His father, doctor Nicomachus, intended him to carry on with the traditional profession of his family but his interests in experimental research and science took him to becoming the greatest philosopher and scientist.
Primarily, Aristotle was neither a mathematician nor did he refer to his researches; yet he made significant contributions by systematising deductive logic. He emphasised on natural science, which included physics, astronomy, botany, zoology, chemistry, and meteorology, geometry and more.
Sir Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton is considered to be the mathematician, astronomer, physicist, alchemist, and natural philosopher, above all the leading scientific intellectual of all time. He has significantly contributed in the development of science. He is widely known for his explanation of Universal Gravitation and three laws of motion. He proved that the same Neutral laws control both the motion of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies. By these important explanations, he welcomed the revolutionary changes in the future development of science.
His great contribution, in mechanical science, was in optics. He made a reflecting telescope and did some research on light and stars; moreover, his significant research on General binomial Theorem laid the foundation of today’s Calculus.
He is considered to be the greatest scientist ever who could successfully assist science to come out from the Aristotelian trend. He gave science a new horizon on its development. He was a physicist, astronomer, and philosopher and best-known for his contribution to the development of Telescope. He is the father of modern astronomy, physics and science.
Charles Robert Darwin
Charles Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) is among one of the greatest scientists of all time. By writing the book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859), he enlisted his name in the world history. The book, as many believe, has dramatically influenced the development of modern science. His unifying theory of life sciences, which explains the diversity of life, is his greatest scientific discovery.
Albert Einstein is twentieth century’s most notable physicist. It is known that he had learning difficulties in his childhood until he was eight. He won the noble prize in 1912 for his for his explanation of the Photoelectric Effect and for his research in Theoretical physics. Science might not have reached where it is today without his contributions. His special theory of relativity, theory of density fluctuation in gases and liquids, quantum theory of atomic motion in solid, quantum theory of monatomic gas, photon theory, geometrization of fundamental physics, zero-point-energy and many more are considered as the revolutionary development of Physics.
Edison is one of the greatest American inventors, scientists and businesspersons who held over 1000 US patents in his name. His developments in diverse fields, including motion picture camera, phonograph, and electric light bulb modified the living style around the world. His contribution in telegraph system, mass communication, telecommunications and many more made him one of the most prolific inventors in history.
Edison was the primary figure behind the concept of electric-power generation and its distribution to homes, factories and businesses institutions. His idea was first implemented in New York, Manhattan. He marketed his inventions and made them available to the general people.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta, the Italian physicist, is best known for his significant contribution to the development of electric battery. His fondness in electricity led him to becoming a renowned physicist. In 1774, he became the professor of physics at the Royal School in Como and started exploring deeply about electricity. In 1775, he developed an instrument called the “perpetual electrophorus”, which was capable of successfully producing and storing electrostatic charge without any constant source of electrostatic energy. In 1778, he was appointed in the University of Pavia in the experimental physics department, where he hold the same position for 40 years. In 1800, he made his historic invention, the voltaic cell, the father of common battery.
Stephen Hawking, is considered to be the greatest scientist in twentieth century after Albert Einstein. His big bang and black hole theory have significantly helped us understand our universe. His book ‘the brief history of time’ on black hole theory became the best seller.
The Royal Society of Arts elected him one of its youngest fellows in 1974 for his exceptionally significant contribution in physics. In 1977, at Cambridge, he was appointed as the professor of gravitational physics and in 1979 he was honoured with Lucasian professorship of mathematics at Cambridge, the most respectful position that was held by Isaac Newton.
Louis Pasteur, French chemist and microbiologist, is one of the most important founders of medical microbiology was born in Dec. 27, 1822, Dole, France and died Sept. 28, 1895, in Saint-Cloud. His contribution in science and technology as well as medicine earned him numerous honors including France’s highest honour. He laid the foundation of today’s microbiology. His another important contribution is to protect from harmful microbes by a process called “Pasteurization” where harmful microbes are destroyed by hitting the food.
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose was the first renowned Bengali scientist, polymath: a physicist, biologist, botanist, archaeologist, and a science fiction writer. By pioneering the investigation of Radio and microwave optics, he laid the foundation of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent. He was the first person to invent “iron-mercury-iron coherer with telephone detector” and the foremost to use a semiconductor junction to catch the radio waves. It is widely believed that his contribution made him 50 years ahead than the rest of the scientists. Ironically, Marconi was declared as the inventor of radio due to his lack of awareness and less knowledge about the US patent. His most significant contribution was the investigations of plant physiology and the striking similarities between the behavioural response of animal and plant tissues.
His another accomplishment was the invention of the ‘crescograph’, an electrical instrument that helps measuring the growth of a plant accurately.
Guglielmo Marchese Marconi
Guglielmo Marchese Marconi, a Nobel laureate physicist from Italy, was born in April 25th, 1874 at Bologna, Italy. He is best known for his invention of Radio and wireless telegraph system. His has a great passion for science from his early childhood. Initially, he worked on electromagnetic wave that was invented by Heinrich Hertz and later, after a long research, he could sense out about the technology to communicate without wire.
In 1899, he established a wireless link between France and Britain and wireless station at the Needles, and gradually extended to Isle of Weight, The Heaven Hotel in Poole. He got patent for ‘turned or systonic telegraph’ under his name in 1900. For the first time, he transmitted wireless signals covering the distance of 2100 miles, across the Atlantic, Cornwall, Poldhu and St, johns, New Foundland.